SERBIAN MEDIEVAL NUMIZMATICS
Lecture held by prof. Dr. Novak Staniša Faculty of Philosophy, Archaeology, 24 May, 1991. (Part I), and 20th and 27 April 1992. (Part II).
Serbian medieval numismatics, as is indeed the case with the medieval Serbian
state, occupies a worthy place in world medieval numismatics. Moreover, it could be said that in many ways beyond the forging of most neighboring countries (because of the variety, beauty, elegance and imagination play, the quality of the forging and the continuous emergence of new species and varieties).
The richness of forging can be illustrated by the following example: in the range of 230 years of forging, ie. since the reign of King Radoslav 1228-1234. to fall to the Turks, more than 20 rulers, 15 county and nobles, and a dozen towns were forged their money, the Index of that money has so far registered about 350-400 species of money, which is of course very difficult to determine due to the fact that the term "species" is somewhat different authors apply different criteria.
Generally speaking, of course, our money belongs to the western medieval tradition of minting, and the first copies of our money coins are modeled after the Byzantine and the Venetian money. Following the example of Byzantine money minted by King Radoslav (1228-1234), son of the first women-Jevdokije Stefan I, daughter of Byzantine Emperor Alexius III Angelos (1195-1203), and the husband of Anna Komnine, daughter of Theodore and Angela (KOMN-at Duke) , tyrants and Thessaloniki Emperor (1215-1230). Forged a typical Byzantine čankasti money "trachea." Following the Venetian coin, according to most authors, has already forged by King Uros I (1243-1276), son of third wife Stefan I-Anne and granddaughter of the Venetian Doge Enrico Dandolo, ženjen Jelena , cousin of Charles I of Anjou, King of Sicily and Naples. It is a "Matapan" kind of money to which they are represented by two figures: the left and right ruler of the saint (patron of the House) who between them hold a spear on the top banner, and the inscription was given the name of the ruler, his title and name all-titelja.
For these two types of money have been two kinds of signs - in Greek, that the Greek alphabet and Latin abe is gone. It is not unusual, given that our money, especially right at the start of forging, was intended mainly for the purpose of what we call "foreign trade". Ever since Stefan Dragutin (1276-1282-1316), the money is there and Cyrillic alphabet. Dusan money is pretty much forged half Latin and half in Cyrillic, mainly in Latin Uros V, and from the still prevalent Vukašina Cyrillic.
TYPES AND SIGNS (problems with attribution)
In addition Matapana can distinguish the following types of money: the king who sits and usually holds a sword over his knees, and sometimes a scepter and a glob with a cross, standing king with a scepter, the head of the ruler, the ruler on horseback, the label in the ranks, the Emperor and Empress, the cross with ornaments, family, the title and arms of the city or its parts (helmet pad, rosettes and feathers, the two-headed eagle, helmet with a bull horn, lion, wolf head in his helmet, the crown of his helmet, city gate), initials, title in the form of puzzles, Play lily, the play flakes, shows St. George, a lamb with a cross and so on.
On the reverse of money is almost always religious performances, mostly of Jesus Christ. On the basis of tradition and respect, the older authors in their papers as the person taking the money the other side where there is representation of Jesus Christ. However, based on internationally agreed criteria, a person of money is the party of which represented a ruler who minted money or name. Mention that by far the most of that money has on the reverse idea of Jesus Christ, who sits on the throne, and is holding the Gospel, and on both sides of the halo is the inscription "IS-HS. Other, more rare performances that appear on the reverse, just after the period of the kingdom , the following: Jesus Christ or the saint stands in mandorla, repeating titles and names with the faces of money, a bust of Jesus Christ, the arms, the mother of God, standing ruler, the head of Jesus Christ, the name of the mint "Smederevo", "RUD-NIC" or "NEW BRDO "and so on.
As for the inscription on our medieval money, just like the coins of other countries, we face the name of the ruler and his title. The already mentioned Matapan-ma who forged Uros to King Dusan, there are two inscriptions "STEFAN REX SSTEFAN" and "REX VROSIVS SSTEFSN", which creates great confusion, so it is not yet to be cleared of these Matapana, which is usually differ more from the fact that the king was crowned and bareheaded, or whether the rulers and saints is a double cross or flag, attributable to that of the rulers.
Specific signs on the coins from the period Dragutin the rule of Srem (1282-1316) and his son, Vladislav II (1316-1323): "STEFAN RAB Christ" or "Government-SLAV RAB Christ". Characteristic are the inscriptions "MONETA REGIS" (or REX, and later DESPOT) and the name of the sovereign or the name of the ruler and "DEI GRACIA REX.
On Dušan's imperial coins are also found different-these labels, but the most characteristic one with a double title "STEFANVS INPERATOR ROIOM (Romániai)
REX race ", or Cyrillic inscription" STEPAN Car ", and" YOU ARE FAN-V CHRIST GOD BLAGOVERNI CAR. "In many examples of labels are provided with a variety of abbreviations, in particular, are characteristic of the abbreviation" SF - ZR "and" Us - ZR "to co-madima of Emperor and Tsar Uros.
Special attention was drawn signs in Italian "CON-TE LAZAR" and "CONTE STEFAN", yet no satisfactory explanation from where such title, "CONTE". It is critically important inscription "VUKOV DINAR. It should be noted and that the money was given the name of the city in two rows (Prizren, Skopje, Smederevo and Rudiste) and folare coastal towns (CIVI-
TAS Catar et al.)
CASH VALUE OF SERBIAN medieval
Based on the quality and weight of money can be quite accurately track changes in the economy of our region. Based on comparisons of average weight dinars individual rulers, found in hoards processed by R. Maric (1956), it is possible to draw some basic conclusions. In this case, of course, as previously important warning should be noted that the profile of our (and not just in our) medieval mints did not enable to achieve the ideal of equal weight of each specimen individually. There are usually some differences of 5 to 10% on higher and lower, and in some cases much larger - up to 25-30%. Therefore, in monitoring the value of money must always operate with an average weight.
The main conclusions are as follows:
- In relation to the Venetian groat (2,178), RSD type Matapana during the first fifty years of forging (Uros, Dragutin, Milutin, Stefan of Decani) were not significantly changed their weight (especially in the first 20-25 years), which means that these rulers maintain approximately the same rate of unemployment. However, some specimens of individual species were under the weight of the Venetian model, but they are some examples of other species exceeded the weight of Venetian coins. This is definitely one of the main arguments against the thesis that the Venetian intervention against Raska CSD 1282nd vol. (And later, 1291st and 1294) was directed less weight dinars (after all, at that time, apparently, the only criterion was that the total weight of a number of pieces corresponding to the prescribed weight - 460 pcs. In one kg).
- Later changing weights of CSD occurs at the end of the reign of Stefan of Decani, and especially during Prime Minister Dusan as king, to about Marička battle was only 50% of their original, which shows that the value of money for so many fell. Decline in values continues to remain, and only ruler Stefan the early fifteenth century, tried and managed to partially lift the value of their money.
- Based on archival material from Dubrovnik and Venice, however, it follows that the value of the Serbian coins decreased, but somewhere between the 1294th and 1309th by about 10%, so that the Serbian dinar worth 4.5 4 Venetian Matapana. However, as noted, and Michael Dinic, in our country at that time were in circulation simultaneously Dinars different values. In the third decade of the fourteenth century, namely 1331st However, some 55 years after the start of forging, 4.25 dinars worth only 3 Venetian Matapana.
It should be added that most of the Serbian medieval rulers and some nobles who were at the time, forged money, forged not only dinars, but lower values - poludinare, and some authors referred to and finally trećake majušnike (S. Dimitrijevic).
GOLD AND COPPER MONEY
Speaking of the Serbian medieval money we talked about money forged alloy silver. This is understandable given that the former Serbian state and have different minted money. Unlike other medieval period that is characterized by forging monometrički (silver), in the third period (XIII-XV century), in the middle of the thirteenth century began again with the forging of gold coins in many countries. But not here.
In terms of copper coins, the situation is somewhat different. That money is, again apparently as "coins" minted only in coastal cities (Kotor, Bar, Ulcinj, Shkodra, Svac and Drivast) where there was or was developed local store "retail", while the rest of the countries there are no traces of copper minting money. In fact, survived and bkarni pieces (are very rare) and the copper specimens or existing types of silver coins. Some of these pieces bear traces of silvering, and most authors believe that it is actually the former forgeries regular silver coinages.
When it comes to our medieval forgeries of money, should be added that there are forged and cast forgeries of modern design.
FORGING, mint SIGNS AND
CIRCULATION OF MONEY
During the first period of forging (at the time of the kingdom), two focal points of money supply were a mint Brskovo (the valley of Tara near Mojkovac) and mine (northwest of Kragujevac). One and a larger flow of silver coins went from Brcko is in the southwest to the coastal cities and other smaller flow went from mine to the north and northeast, ie. to Sirmium, Banat and Transylvania. Much less the distribution of money from these two first mint was the central area between them (old Serbian and pool Morava). It is quite natural, given that the first Serbian money-that most authors agree - was coined especially for the everyday needs of local people, but for the purposes of international trade.
Other mints began to work sometime in early fourteenth century, and successively to the end of forging the fall to the Turks. These are: Trepca (1303), Novo Brdo (1326), Plan (1346, in the valley of the Ibar River southwest of Kings), Srebrnica (1352), Skopje, Prizren, Ohrid, Smederevo, Rudiste (unidentified mine near Belgrade, was mentioned in Dubrovnik's archives from the mid-fifteenth century). A number of mints, the variety of types of money, especially Dusan, and the data obtained in pantry, all of this clearly indicates that the period of the empire strong financial system has spread to the whole, is now a very large territory. The subsequent collapse of the empire, the dominance of regional warlords who are in large numbers, though in quite a short period of time, minted its own money, have led to more complex and diversified finance, though not to a further increase, but rather a stagnation or a reduction in cash Circulation. Circulation was again revived in the times, but has periodically been far more limited.
Without taking into account those coastal towns that are in certain periods extended rule of the Serbian rulers, our money, it is quite reliable to conclude on the basis of written documents, going to know the amount of Dubrovnik and Venice. Found hoards also testify that the money (this concerns mainly the first two periods of forging - the royal and imperial) circulated widely indeed, and in addition to Italy, in Greece, even more in Bulgaria or in Romania and Hungary.
Starting from the practice that even in ancient times, each had its own mint mark that is placed on pieces made in her workshops, some writers (particularly R. Maric), attempted to different letters, which are normally in great numbers in some javljjaju our medieval pieces, connect to the mints, but felt that in some cases may be just a decoration. But the diversity of these letters and their combinations is so large that R. Maric had to introduce quite a lot of arbitrary assumptions. Some letters attributed to the different mints, for example. marked-points S, or S - S or S only should indicate the mint in Skopje and the like. Despite all the mass character code remained, un-me, neodgonetnuta!
Another author (P. Prljinčević) has recently (1981) presented more plausible hypothesis about what they mean and different letters. Noting the many clear differences between different masters - Moulder, primarily in money Stefan Dusan, Prljinčević suggested that different letters in the same Moulder represent his personal records on the number of benches made of (a certain number for each tag), of which, no doubt , depended on the amount of his earnings.
SERBIAN medieval DEPOSITS OF MONEY
The study of Commons has indeed a very great significance for numismatics, and in particular to resolve various problems in that numismatics of which we have found little or no written document, as is the case with our numismatics (money attribution, chronology forging, forging time, the differentiation of masters - the cutter mold , to obtain various data on emissions and the circulation of certain types of funds, type of alloy, how many pieces came from a single mold, etc.).
He has known all one hundred of registered Serbian medieval hoards of money, of which the largest group (Kosovo storage) contained several thousand pieces (only registered part of the 2531 piece), most storage has a few pieces to several hundred pieces, which indicates the scarcity of money in relation , say, the Roman or Byzantine money. In fact, the total amount so far discovered and preserved Serbian medieval coins does not exceed the amount of about 40,000 to 50,000 pieces, as is normally possible to find in a single Roman coins left! (For example, Nis 1936).
Economic development and the first appearance of money in medieval Serbia
When it comes to the economy of medieval Balkan states is seen by many before him stereotype of dark, unfathomable times, they reign wars, primitivism, ignorance, economic backwardness, isolation, and inferiority in comparison to other European countries at that time. Although the western part of the Balkans lacks historical sources that this period, especially in the early Middle Ages, the better illuminate, archives of some coastal towns give us enough data to reconstruct a general picture of its economic development.
Balkan populations of the early Middle Ages, made up of newcomers Slovenian farmers and indigenous farmers, matured in its development path in the late Middle Ages to the developed economies, strong trade and monetary production, large commercial transport, and complex forms of organization. The period until the thirteenth century is very scarce in the sources. From last December and the first decades of the thirteenth century there are documents on trade with Italy's coastal towns and cities of the interior of the Balkans. This is a contract of Dubrovnik with some Italian cities, Bosnia and Serbia from the 1148th and 1221st year. Coastal sites are due, above all, its geo-strategic position in the early Middle Ages managed to overcome the isolation that is characterized by subsistence economy. Izmeođu all coastal sites, which are in the beginning had almost equal chances of winning positions in the state in the interior of the Balkans, said the Dubrovnik and its merchants, who, thanks to more first Nemanjic, the former state, Raska, found fertile ground for parallel effect on two tracks as a mining entrepreneurs with a series of related activities, and as traders to supply the local population by imported goods. Coastal cities that have established trade links with Italy and the Balkan hinterland towns were acting as an intermediary between the interior of the Balkans with other Mediterranean cities. Goods that are exported to the coast was more for stock characters - cheese, dried meat. leather, furs, wax and honey, so it can be concluded that the livestock products were required export commodity.
During the thirteenth century, there was suppression of the Byzantine Empire and to strengthen and highlight new countries such as Hungary and Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia and Bulgaria. Their rulers are trying to strengthen the economy as much as possible by approving foreign colonization, the privileges awarded to miners and traders, with the guarantee of safety. Dubrovnik, which is among others the-Sea city very early pointed preduzimljivošću its merchants and citizens, was under the rule of Serbian rulers, but these contracts he secured all the privileges and freedom of movement and operation, they were at and Serbian subjects.
The period of the fourteenth and fifteenth century provides much more information regarding the development of trade among the population of the Balkans. Continued trade has been a sign of the existence of surplus production. With the facilitation of duty comes to strengthening robnonovčane economy. Indication of commodity production in the late Middle Ages are visible from the differentiated division of labor, freedom ženih forms of organization of trade associations and entrepreneurs, as well as cash and credit operations, which are quite taken hold. Commodity production is very frequent in coastal areas, and in the mining centers and the surrounding area, such as Novo Brdo, Kopaonik range, part of Bosnia and medium Podrinje. The strengthening of commodity production is evidenced by the growth of urban settlements that are formed around the mines. They perform trade operations and craft activities designed razJičite any market, any mining activities. Data from the fifteenth century can be seen that during the Serbian country there are complex forms of business in the mining industry, and relations that are possible only in a developed economy ncvčanoj. Here specifically for the enterprise in the mining and already well-established lending citizens. Dubrovnik merchants are performed jointly (Societas), with providing financial resources for investment, engaged build smelters, bought the rights to the shaft, taking charge urbure, etc.. in order to export to Dubrovnik and the Italian cities, especially in Venice. In addition, they were in the first half of the fifteenth century, the whole system of lending conducted by citizens, including rural areas.
Thanks to the intensive exploitation of Serbian silver mines in this period managed to compensate for the weakness of economic development of the previous period. There is a major part of Novo Brdo had that with its high output enable despotate to maintain a material level of their class far above the level that would have set general develop-accuracy trade-money economy in Serbia.
Serbia's economy has developed in close conjunction with economies of Dubrovnik because it is impossible to talk about outside of that context. The mere presence of merchants from Dubrovnik centuries, various experts and other population in the territory of Serbian territory is about relationships that are more or less been successful, and relations between Dubrovnik and the government of Serbian rulers - sometimes good, sometimes bad. Republic has used his skills Serbian mining potential, certainly for personal profit while an equally large profits came in a private (state) treasury Serbian rulers.
The major changes in the industry and mining in Serbia have influenced the development of monetary systems. Until the emergence of Serbian coins of the mid-thirteenth century, a period that coincides with the beginning of mining in Serbia (Brskovo), in Serbian lands were circulated silver coins of various foreign origin. The beginnings of forging Serbian coins fall short at the time of the reign of King Radoslav (1227-1234) which was forged, still very rare, silver and copper trachea following the example of Byzantine money. In terms of forging a silver dinar Serbian opinion today, as before, divided. It is believed that the first program began in mid or early in the second half of the XIII century, whether in the reign of King Uros I, "Mir" Dragoslav name, or his older son Stefan Dragutin? In this regard we point to two well-known, but apparently overlooked the document. The first mention of Serbian dinars brskovskog - MKD grossi de Brescua - stems from 1277, the Dubrovnik Liber statutorum Ragusii Doane, on the occasion of a loan of 25 or solids. perpers. The point is that this whole loan transactions started later than the 1275th year on this basis we can assume that the Serbian money existed before July 1276.
Another reliable data from our medieval documents demonstrates the Serbian dinar during the reign of King Uros I. King was the 1254th and 1264th Charter issued monastery Sv. Peter and Paul in Lima, with the blessing and confirmation of the then Archbishop Arsenija. This charter of King Stefan Uros I renew hrisovulja his father, which were confirmed by his uncle gifts, Prince Miroslav monastery Sv. Petra in Lima. Among other things, Article XXIX of the Charter makes reference to two dinars as compensation (fee) priest, ie. churches, to testify before any court.
These two facts could serve as the basis of research right term at the beginning of forging Serbian coins. In the absence of key evidence for now everything stays in the domain assumptions.
At the end of the XV century economic development in Serbia is much faster. Development of urban settlements created consumer centers, which was driven by the trade exchange and turnover. Arrived on the market is more and more goods for the payment of cash. Cash were paid various fines and fees, miners. mercenaries, court clerks. The development of monetary system in the Serbian and the surrounding countries testifies to the growing role of money in the economy. It was in the late Middle Ages there was a development of all standard functions of money that remain to this day, however with modern technology payments.
Recall that the tender Slavs had cloth, livestock and measured silver. In the period between the IX and XI century the Serbs as a means of payment used by livestock. The state transportation funds Nemanjićes function had the goods, measured in silver and coins (silver coins) and the function of an imaginary, fictitious unit of account had perpers. The concept of a fictitious perpers calculating unit, initially based on a Byzantine gold coin, was approved by the Serbian state from the Venetians at the beginning of the thirteenth century, while the Serbian money was not broadcast.
When the mid-thirteenth century the country began minting silver Nemanjićes CSD perpers as a fictitious unit of account from 12 dinars taken from Dubrovnik, and as such appears in the Serbian historical sources regularly from the time of King Milutin. Neither the state treasury, even in traffic is not the computer in a silver dinar, but only in perpers, with perpers at 12 dinars. The Code of Emperor perpers found in 17 members (level penalties for various offenses, the amount of primary cesarean soca taxes, high fees for the handover of gifts). U.S. functioned as a measure of value only in cases where it was a small forest of perpers, ie. less than 12 dinars. Thus, for example. in Article 108 of the Code přístavu should pay issue fee (tax) for the transfer of various imperial gifts and 3 perpers for the country, 3 perpers for the mill, 1 Perper for horses, 6 dinars for the mare, 4 dinars for cattle, 2 dinars for the lock. Court to hear witnesses mentioned the church tax of four dinars, and for taking action in the process of 6 dinars. As we see, the fee for the church is half the thirteenth to the mid-fourteenth century, at the time of Emperor Dusan, double rose.
From medieval written documents earlier period shows that the exchange took place mainly through the primitive commodity money. For example, in Zica Charter Stefan I issued in 1220 year. penalties are in horses and oxen, and later, in the charters of King Milutin, the Gracanica monastery and Banjska, penalties were expressed in money, even for farmers, which also indicates that the monetization of the economy affected the lower strata of society. An example of the simultaneous use of primitive and coins we see the Charter of King Stefan Uros III of Decani. King founded the monastery of Decani, and give him benefits. Article LII Charter says we Osvobodete Kingdom and redeem my church priests in Bishop Nicholas hvostanskog for 400 ewes with lambs and 500-perpers.
it is easy to manufacture coins in mid-fourteenth century, has grown considerably, barter remained still in force. For example, two members of Dushan's Code states the penalty oxen.
Measured silver was the only form of primitive money of the reign of Emperor Uros until the fall of Serbian state (1355-1459) used along with forged dinar. About other primitive forms of payment money has a lot of evidence in written documents before and during the reign of Emperor and the application of its Code. One example is the payment of the measured silver Prizren deed, made between the 1346th and 1366th year. The deed says that sales Dobroslava brother Manu Dragančinu court, ie. property in Prizren at a cost of 8 liters of silver-price to the court that eight litr silver.
In connection with Pomena primitive money point to an interesting detail from our medieval fresco painting. King Milutin was to depict monasteries Old Nagoricino 1317 - 18 Thessaloniki masters hired Michael and Eutyches that his experience in the spirit of classicism kasnovizantijskog transferred to the frescoes, and all the more surprising that the cycle of frescoes in the betrayal of Judas, instead of 30 pieces of silver, silver bracelets painters display (Alka), larger and smaller dimensions. Motif bracelet is found on the frescoes of the cycle of Christ's sufferings in the arena of silver Judas returned to the priests "in the Decani monastery, the endowment of King Stefan Uros from Decani in 1330. It is clear that in both cases is a very original, unique interpretation of primitive money. This motif bracelet, entered the fresco whose compositions influenced by the local Slavic population which payments are being made primitive money - measured in the form of silver bangles, which at that time was common. bracelet shown in the frescoes are also a form of primitive money, and the difficulty measure. fresco mentioned confirm the use of jewelry as a function of money.
During its existence of Serbian medieval U.S. had constant downward tendency. Since the original theoretical weight of 2.178 g weight of the Serbian dinar is in the times varied between 0.39 -1.20 - 1.00 g. The causes of the decline of CSD were various, and this is the most affected by the increasing demand for silver coins and the need to adapt systems of surrounding states.
Serbian dinar, in general, has undergone three reforms known to us. Car Dusan around 1348th was taken to stabilize the national currency. Then the old dinars from the time of the kingdom, as well as some senior imperial dinar, whose weight varied between 2.12 and 0.96 g. prekivani the imperial money the average weight of 1.5 g. Law from 1354 adopted at the Council of Cer car was introduced cruel punishment for counterfeiting dinars. Legal formation of the Serbian dinar continued 1412th the Code of mines Despot Stefan Lazarevic, who did not complete. Despot Stefan was the law-which, members of the VIII and XIX, tried also to protect its U.S., whose weight was previously tripled (from 0.40 to 1.20 g). This reform took place between the 1405th and 1407th year. The third reform of the U.S. during the reign of Despot George Brankovic, Despot when trying to stabilize its U.S. at a weight of about 1.1 g, to make replacement of old for new dinars. Despot is on the case racketeering by Dubrovnik merchants 1435th issued an order that the new money - the new currency - have to pay debts, so you will receive 10 dollars new for 16 old dinars debts, and this year may be taken as the year of the first issues of new Djurdjevi dinars.
Fundamental changes in the economy, mining and finance came after the Turkish conquest of most of the Balkans. The Ottomans occupied mining and commercial centers, have adopted a command economy and the extracted charged a toll. There is a decline in production in mines, which finally led to their disappearance. Turks were given on lease and rental figures talk about their fall and unprofitable Turkish government has banned export of silver, which by their conquests took place successfully; broken the tradition of free trade precious metals. Silver had to sell mints at capped prices. Traders have lost interest in such matters, so trade is returned to work with livestock products. This economy has led to the continental parts of the Balkans begin to lag behind economically because they are increasingly estranged from the network of financial management. It just so happened that in the last decades of the sixteenth century, the interior of the Balkans has become least developed part of Europe.
Although the medieval period characterized by wars, podeljenošću and hostility among neighbors, the economy of the Western Balkans was a part and parcel of the European economy. With elements of market economy, which is observed in differentiated division of labor, complex forms of entrepreneurship, the establishment of various societies and development credit - monetary policy, it was at the height of his epoch, both in terms of manufacturing techniques and forms of organization.
Taken from Dinar no. 31
History of Serbian money-More
The documents are, for now, is unequivocal. The first money - coins, of course - was formed in the 7th century BC. Then Ardis, king of the Greek colonies of Asia Minor Lydia, imprinted his mark on Canak pieces ELEKTRUM, natural mixture of gold and silver. And money is irrevocably become legal tender in the exchange of goods, a guarantee of its value over the state or ruler. From there the process of coinage spread to the Aegean Islands and sailed to the mainland. The rest is history, and part of it, called "Dinar - our money", is shown in the exhibition hall of the National Bank of Serbia in Belgrade, Kralja Petra 12th The material is taken from the Numismatic Collection of the National Bank with the intention to present the money on the territory of Serbia, from the earliest appearance to date. A valuable attempt to place one sees not only what they are trading our ancestors but also that, in a tangible way, look at the power and prestige of the society or the country in a time of greatly shadowed darkness of ages.
Text and photos before you are just intent on stones, in short, offers only one possible mosaic for a story about money in our country.
The first known (forged) money that was used on the territory of present-day Serbia was made of silver and is related to the time of the supremacy of Athens in the Aegean world. It is a Tetradrahmen and drams, smaller and larger pieces of silver, and here is used in the Greek colonies. Tetradrahmen on the obverse has a figure of Athena, patron of the city, while the reverse owl as its symbol. Since the mid-4th century BC is the most widely used silver Tetradrahmen Philip and Alexander the Great. Cash Alexander is recognized by the view of young Heracles on the obverse of which he is the descendant and representative of the country. It is believed that the deity in the form of Alexander himself as the start of impressions portraits of rulers on coins that lasts to this day.
Name the main Roman currency - silver denarius - originated from the Latin denarius, which means ten (1 penny - copper 10 hours). Over the Serbian medieval minting and, furthermore, by forging the renewed Serbian in the 19th century kept up to date by the name of the U.S., as a unit of the modern monetary system of Yugoslavia and Serbia. Interestingly, the oldest Roman coins minted from copper and bronze at the end of the fourth and the 3rd century BC, and that from the silver coins introduced only after the 280th BC, when they arrived and developed the Greek cities of southern Italy. In these areas comes at the beginning of the first century BC, together with the roman enterprising traders and there is a preferred means of payment and a century after the fall of the Roman Republic.
The Romans in this region and left a significant mark and how and when money is at stake, especially during the mighty Empire, when the Danube establishes a natural border separating the so-called barbarian Roman world. The vast country, which is provided on three continents, had an adequate number of mints. Serbia in today's work are two: in Viminacium (Costal near Pozarevac) and Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica). The latter, in addition to copper, minted money in gold and silver, and the peak was reached in the 4th century, when the Sirmium was one of the capital of the Empire.
Roman times and the time when he recorded the first major inflation in history. It happened a third seventies century when the accrued costs for the maintenance of the army had to be forged huge amounts of silver coins. And he is so impaired that eventually forged from copper with only 3-4 percent of silver. Today in our region is frequently found, but his value is much higher than at the time of occurrence.
If we came across the name of the U.S. must, Perper came by land, from the Byzantine Empire. Is related to the monetary reform of Emperor Alexius I and the origin of the word means purified, processed gold. Perper was in fact a national name for nomisms, Byzantine gold coin.
Following the example of Byzantine money, the Serbian King Stefan Radoslav began forging his money of silver and copper, which is the beginning of the history of coinage in medieval Serbia. He was čankastog shape with inscriptions in Greek, but is preserved in small numbers. Judging by the lack of material and written evidence, his heirs - and Stefan Vladislav I Stefan Uroš I - did not coin their own money. But the king Dragutin is, and 1276th Brskovo in addition to today's Mojkovac, and modeled after a Venetian Matapan. And when he shared power with his brother Milutin, he came to the mine where the resulting dinars more weight and fineness of brskovskih. For them, the first time, the inscription written in Cyrillic, and describes the ruler holding a scepter with the cross. Hence the term "Cross dinar," which will come into play especially in the time of King Milutin, when Serbia became the most powerful country in the Balkans.
The State Nemanjićes mintage was first legalized Articles 168, 169 and 170 Code of Emperor, adopted by the Parliament in the Seru 1354th year. In free translation, the first Serbian Law on minting money is:
"Jewelers in the parishes and the royal land holdings that are not inhabited, but only in the cities which the king ordered Forging CSD."
"If he lived in the village instead of the jeweler in the city and the Imperial Square, to displace the village goldsmith, and burn. If it is determined that the goldsmith bitches dinars in secret, to the goldsmith and burn the city to determine how much to pay a fine car. "
"The imperial cities to work goldsmith workshop and to produce for their own purposes."
During the reign Nemanjićes no state mint, but the money was minted in zlatarijama, as they called the mint in which goldsmiths worked in several cities and the more squares. One reason was surely that the former government never had a permanent capital. It was there where he was the ruler's palace. The second reason was economic in nature because the ore sue on several places, including the opening of a mint in the mining centers of the cost savings enabled the transport of metal required for making money.
For the time of Emperor Dusan was established and in particular public interest - kamatnik. It could be any subject, except religious people who dealt with by borrowing silver coins under interest. The word is derived from the ancient Greek word that means the interest yield or profit. At that time, she was widespread institution carnival or default. It consisted in giving valuables for safekeeping private person, municipality or town that dealt with the matter. Why? Simply, there was no property legal security: peace is fearful of robbers, in the war against the enemy. Carnival in coins were called up, and the benefit was mutual, as today's interest rates on term deposits, for example. The owner of coins is charging an annual yield of the recipient set - usually five per cent - and this is, meanwhile, could use the money. Rulers and the nobility forged their possessions are usually trusted with Dubrovnik, and Venice.
The peculiarity of money appears in Dushan's time that he, for the first time, no two previously normal figure - the ruler and the St.. Stefan - but, back when titulisao for the emperor, instead of a saint appears the figure of the Empress. His son, Emperor Uros, continues with forging money on the model of his father, but is distinguished by the frequent deviations from the rule that one party carries the idea of Christ.
One car and two king smutno the time after the death of Dusan the Mighty. Uros is weak and earned the nickname because Vukasin Mrnjavčević and his son Marko then carry the (legitimate) title of king. And until then a strong and unified country falls apart in a number of areas as evidenced by the forging of their own money on that every remotely significant lord thought that claim. Of these is the fact that the money that was minted Vuk Brankovic, the ruler of the area around Pristina and Skopje, the first time in history the name printed on U.S. money, a medieval ruler.
At the time Despotovina and management of Stefan Lazarevic and George Brankovic, the first time the name appears on the coins of the city where bitches money. So we read the names of Smederevo, Skopje, Prizren, and Rudiste, Novo Brdo, Kotor.